What is nutrition?
The food contains many nutrients like carbohydrates, fats, proteins, mineral salts, vitamins, and water, so nutrition is the action of organisms to get these nutrients from food.
Why nutrition is important for organisms?– Nutrition is essential for organisms because.-
- All organisms require energy to run all biological functions smoothly. This energy comes from the reduction of food.
- Food increases the number of organisms, as a result, cells of organisms grow in size and their division increases the size of organisms.
- New organisms repair the breakdown of cells and tissues.
- A balanced diet increases the body’s immunity.
Nutrients and their classification
Many types of nutrients are found in food, which work to produce the energy required for the body, repair the body’s building and increase the body’s immunity. The following 5 nutrients are found in food
- Mineral salts
Carbohydrates are used as a cellular fuel for biological functions, they generate energy for biological functions. They are formed by mixing of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Among them, the ratio of C, H, and O is 1:2:1 These are two types.
- Simple Carbohydrate- Simple carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, and lactose are found in a lot of simple forms like sugarcane beet, dates, etc.
- Complex Carbohydrate- Starch as a complex carbohydrate is the staple food found in potato, rice, arabica, maize, and sago.
Functions of carbohydrates
- They act as an energy source in all organisms. Energy is released from the fission of glucose in respiration.
- It is a fuel source in plants in the form of starch and in animals in the form of glycogen.
- They help in the formation of cell art and connective tissues.
- They convert into fat and act as accumulated fuel.
- In DNA, RNA, deoxyribos,e, and ribose sugars are found respectively. DNA is a genetic material and RNA works in protein formation.
- Glucose and galactose sugars form lactose sugars in the mammary glands.
Protein is a complex organic substance, which is the main substance that produces organisms. Proteins make all types of enzymes. They repair the wear and tear in the body. And also provide energy by oxidation when needed.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, together form proteins. A protein molecule consists of several amino acids. Therefore, amino acids are structural or monomeric units of proteins. About 20 types of amino acids participate in the composition of animal organisms. Of these, 10 amino acid cells form themselves and 10 are taken as food. Those which are formed by the cells themselves are called unnecessary amino acids. And the remaining 10 amino acids are called essential.
Proteins are obtained from meat, fish, milk, egg, and cheese, etc. from the animals, and from the vegetable world, it is available in lentils, wheat, peanuts, almonds, etc.
Functions of proteins
- This works to increase the growth and repair of wear and tear in the body.
- A protein called hemoglobin carries oxygen in blood transport.
- It acts as a chemical catalyst in enzymes.
- It works by the synthesis of fats.
- Thrombin and fibrinogen are blood proteins that block blood secretion by depositing a blood clot.
It is a complex organic substance, which is essential for the metabolism of the body and provides immunity to the body. The deficiency of vitamins leads to incomplete diseases. They are also called growth factors. We get different vitamins in different foods. Funk first used the word vitamin in 1911. First, among all, B1 was isolated while knowledge of vitamin C was the earliest.
Vitamins are mainly of two types.
1 water-soluble vitamin such as vitamins B and C
2 fat-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin
Click here for information about the sources, functions, and diseases of vitamin deficiency.
Additional food items are stored in the body in the form of fat and provide energy. They cooperate in heat control and construction of Koshakala. Apart from this, they also give shape to the body.
Fats are also unsaturated compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. But the amount of oxygen in them is relatively less from animals, we get it in the form of butter, cheese, milk, etc. In vegetable food, it is found in coconut, almonds, peanuts, mustard, oilseeds, etc.
Functions of fat
Fats mainly have the following functions
- It is a major source of energy production.
- Their real importance is in the form of accumulated food.
- They help in maintaining a certain body temperature.
- They act as solvents for vitamins A, D, E, and many hormones.
- When required, they are converted into carbohydrates by lipogenesis.
Water and mineral salts
About 45 to 80% of all organisms have water in their body. Water is the main part of living matter. Water as a universal solvent participates in all biological functions in the body. It helps in controlling body temperature and the transfer of substances.
Mineral salts are about 4 – 5% of our body weight. Inorganic mineral salts are necessary for carrying out many metabolic activities, they are also helpful in building various organs of the body. For example, nutrition or body, calcium, and phosphorus are required for the formation of teeth and bones, iron for the manufacture of hemoglobin, and iodine for the production of Thorazine.